PAML tokens create portable authorization where the Enforcement point need not know either the Principal making the request or the Owner authorized to grant the request. But the Principal/user must be in direct contact with the enforcement point to establish, through a cryptographic handshake, ownership of the PAML token being used. In many scenarios this direct connection is undesirable, even impossible. The Principal can not have a direct connection to the enforcement point.
A medical records repository is a good example. Security rules prohibit direct access over the internet to such a repository. Intermediary entities, application servers, firewall and the like, are mandated gateways.
In effect someone or something, must act on behalf of the Principal with the Enforcement point: An Agent.
This can be effected by placing one PAML token inside another. This token-in-token functionality is described in detail below. Any number of tokens can be embedded inside one another. In some ways like a certificate chain.
As with a standard Agent-Principal model the Principal trusts the Agent to act in the way the Principal desires. But with PAML token the Principal can narrow the Agents latitude to the extent desired.
Definition of terms
The Principal. This is the person, or entity, on whose behalf the request is undertaken.
Agent. The person or entity carrying out the request task on behalf of the Principal.
Owner. The person or entity that decides if the Principal is entitled to have the request(s) undertaken.
Enforcer. Person or entity in control of the resource and handles the request from the Agent. The Enforcer accepts the PAML token for authorization decisions.
Here is a schematic of the flow
Explanation of steps
Step 1 Principal prepares a list of request, or logical super-set of requests, in an XML format document; and signs this list with the Principal’s own private key. The logical super-sets can include rules according to which the requests made by the agent should be evaluated. The Agent can only carry out request on this list or ones contained in super-sets on this list. The XML document can include XSLT operations to be applied at enforcement time to the request made by the Agent. With this XSLT the Principal can enforce additional limitations (such as timing or checking token revocation list) on the requests the Agent is making.
Creating (pseudo XML document)
Using the private key used to sign the request list document and the public key that belong to it: engage in cryptographic handshake with Agent and through this, establish to the Agent’s satisfaction that the Principal is in possession of the private key used to sign the request list.
Pass the signed list to the Agent.
Step 2 Agent attaches own usage conditions to Principal’s signed request.
And sign with the Agent’s own private key.
Using the private key used to sign the document and the public key that belong to it: engage in cryptographic handshake with the Owner and through this, establish to the Owner’s satisfaction that the Agent is in possession of the private key used to sign the document.
Pass the signed document to the Owner.
Owner attaches own usage conditions to Agent’s signed request.
And sign with the Owners own private key. This is the same private key used to sign the resource the PAML token governs access to.
The PAML token is now completed.
Return the PAML to the Agent.
The Agent now has a PAML token providing authorized access to resources signed with the same private key that signed the token. The PAML token can be reused to the limits specified in the owner’s usage conditions. Typically these would at least include validity time periods.
The Agent can now make request to the Enforcer and have them be authorized by the token. The requests are on behalf of the Principal but do not have to be directly from the Principal.
The Agent engages in a cryptographic handshake with the Enforcer using the private key used to sign the document from the Principal and the public key that belong to it: engage in cryptographic handshake with the Enforcer and through this, establish to the Enforcer’s satisfaction that the Agent is in possession of the private key used to create agent signature in the PAML token document.
Passed one or more PAML tokens to the Enforcer.
Pass a request to the Enforcer.
The Enforcer examines the PAML tokens it has received. The tokens are checked in the following way and order:
XML validation. Those containing invalid XML are discarded.
XML schema validation. Those containing improper XML are discarded.
Agents signature validation: Using the public key of the Agent established in the cryptographic handshake the agent signature in the token validated. Tokens failing this validation are discarded.
Remaining tokens are tokens the Agent is properly entitled to use.
Examine the request and match it to the request list part of the remaining PAML tokens.
Those token that do not govern the request are discarded. Meaning that the request list in the token(s) do(es) not have at least one match for the request.
The remaining PAML tokens, if any, both belong to the Agent and govern the request the Agent is making.
The Enforcer examines the resource the request is for and what, if any digital signature it bears. Only if the resource bears a signature that can be validated with the same public key that can also validate the owners signature on the PAML token, is the resource considered “in scope” for the request. These two signature validation are carried out using the public key of the owner included with owner’s signature on the PAML token. If both signatures can be successfully validated the request is authorized.
In step 5 we get the desired situation that a completely stand-alone enforcement point can make authorization decisions for agents acting on behalf of someone else, without having to know the identity of either of the parties. This gives obvious benefits in reduced complexity and ease of deployment.
PAML token is a very interesting concept and would enable some business cases:
1. Clients issue power of attorney documents to law firms
2. Power of attorney document issued by one individual to another. Here I think of ordinary stuff such as getting a letter / buying medicine on behalf of another person
Case 2 becomes even more interesting when we have eID interoperability platforms in place (https://www.eid-stork.eu/), so the same operation can be performed across borders. Anyone who had to send notarized documents across several national jurisdictions would appreciate such possibility.